Sustainable Development Goal 10 aims to reduce inequalities within and among countries by the year 2030. The intention of this goal is to allow individuals in all countries to flourish by mitigating or nullifying the effects of financial and social discrimination and promoting inclusive policy-making.1


BY 20302
  • Reduce income inequality by improving and sustaining income growth for the population living below the national averages.
  • Promote equal opportunities for all by eliminating discriminatory practices and advocating for inclusive legislation.
  • Encourage development assistance and investment in least developing countries, particularly through financial flow and foreign direct investment
  • Promote social, economic, and political inclusion, irrespective of age, sex, disability, ethnicity, origin, economic status, etc…
  • Facilitate safe migration policies to ensure the health and safety of migrants.


Reducing inequalities is essential to improving the quality of life for those who have historically been marginalised due to their sex, age, ethnic origin, economic status or religion. Despite global efforts to combat discrimination, the practice remains widespread, with groups such as women and those with disabilities experiencing heightened risk.12 This can be partially attributed to societal patterns of discrimination passed intergenerationally. According to UNICEF, this necessitates early childhood intervention to break intergenerational inequality, which they argue begins at birth.13

making those with disabilities one of the largest minority groups in the world.14 People with disabilities are often met with structural barriers inhibiting their full participation in society. This may include discriminatory healthcare policies, lack of access to transportation, and exclusion from education and employment. According to the World Health Organisation, under international human rights law countries have an obligation to address health inequity for persons with disabilities and states that disability inclusion is necessary to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals15


Income inequality has increased with the world’s richest 1 percent owning nearly half of the worlds wealth and workers share of income suffering significant erosion. Income impacts nearly every aspect of inequality and acts as both a driver and a measure of inequality indicators. For example, income inequality can lead to financial and social discrimination which fuel growing gaps – such as the digital divide or inequalities of opportunity. Moreover, it can impact an individual’s ability to access basic services, such as healthcare and education, which in turn drive this inequality higher. According to the United Nations, income inequality can also sow social discord and uncertainty, with growing evidence attributing high levels of income inequality to the rise in extreme nationalism and nativism, currently dividing many countries.17 Income inequality is pervasive and threatens the prosperity and quality of life of everyday citizens.
One of the targets of Sustainable Development Goal 10 is to ensure safe and well-managed migration, including for those forced to flee their home countries. In May of 2022, 6 million refugees from Ukraine were recorded fleeing to other countries, predominantly women and children.18 This conflict has contributed to the growing proportion of refugees evidenced in the past few years. These refugees rely on safely managed migration policies and routes in order to make safe passage to their final destinations.

The World After COVID-19

The pandemic effected 1.6 billion students, causing education setbacks and risking 17 trillion in lifetime earnings.19 Education inequity between countries was exacerbated by the slower rate of return to school by lower income nations.20 Students in households already effected by discrimination and inequality were the least equipped for remote learning and often had less access to electricity, devices, and household support. These conditions put students during the pandemic at further risk of experiencing economic inequality & learning inequality, laying a negative foundation for future quality of life.


The economic turmoil experienced in the wake of the Covid-19 pandemic and its incredibly slow march to recovery has widened income disparity between and within countries.21 Pandemic unemployment, rising inflation, and supply chain disruption have contributed to rising poverty levels which can affect access to inequality-reducing tools. Rising public debt at the government level can also impact their willingness to invest in social services that benefit vulnerable groups and reduce inequality mechanisms.22


The closure of many borders in order to contain the spread of Covid-19 and its variants led many refugees and migrants to pursue more dangerous migration routes in search of decent work and opportunities. This made 2021 one of the deadliest years on record for migrants; almost 5,900 migrant deaths were recorded that year, the majority of which were on route or through Europe.23


Reducing Health Inequalities – Salvation Army Hospitals

The Salvation Army responds to health concerns in all 132 countries in which it is present, expanding access to healthcare. As part of the mission to ensure access to health services for all, The Salvation Army operates 172 health facilities, 38 hospitals, 124 health clinics, mobile clinics, and provides medical training in nursery, midwifery, and laboratory training schools.24



Reducing Education Inequality – Salvation Army Schools


The Salvation Army works to expand access to education, reducing education inequality, and as part of its mission, operates over 2,000 schools and educates over 500,000 students.25 Schools have the potential to shape young people's lives by ensuring they receive a quality education, providing them with tools and skills necessary to contribute to their communities and reduce income, education, and opportunity disparity. The Salvation Army also operates many special needs schools globally, providing education and health services to those with various disabilities.

Reducing Inequalities – Salvation Army Social Services


Various Salvation Army social services initiatives around the world work in harmony to provide a holistic approach to reducing inequalities for all. The Salvation Army’s health, employment, disability, education initiatives, and more work hand in hand in providing opportunities and vital resources that reduce inequalities, wherever there is a need.

Reducing Inequalities Between Countries – Salvation Army World Services Office


Established in 1977, The Salvation Army World Services Offices works to reduce inequalities between countries by investing in the financial, physical, and spiritual wellbeing of those in economically developing nations. Through fundraising, SAWSO engages in $57 million worth of projects that develop sustainable solutions to problems facing communities around the world.


Safe Migration – The Salvation Army in Ukraine

Brazzaville. (2023, April 2). In Wikipedia. 

In the wake of conflict in Ukraine, The Salvation Army in the surrounding nations welcomed refugees with open arms, providing them with resources and support, easing their transition into their host communities.26 The Salvation Army has facilitated the shipment of relief supplies, hygiene kits, food, and provided emergency shelter for those who have been affected by the conflict.



Reducing Inequality for People with Disabilities

The Salvation Army International works to reduce inequalities for persons with disabilities through employment & skill building, health services, and enrichment programmes. Across the globe, The Salvation Army hosts music therapy, adaptive summer camps, employment programmes, and health services for people with disabilities. For example, the ‘Youthlink Skills 4 Life’ in Australia, a specialist youth disability service which provides outdoor recreation therapy, psychological services, and day and after school programmes to help young people with disabilities develop life skills to help them thrive.27

Reduced inequalities. The Global Goals. (n.d.). Retrieved January 31, 2023, from
The Statistics Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. (2022). The Sustainable Development Goals Extended Report 2022. UN Stats. Retrieved January 31, 2023, from
Global inequality. (2023, January 19). Retrieved February 2, 2023, from
6The Statistics Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. (2022). The Sustainable Development Goals Extended Report 2022. UN Stats. Retrieved January 31, 2023, from
8United Nations. (2022, July). Progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals – Report of the Secretary General. Sustainable Development Goals. Retrieved October 28, 2022, from
14World Health Organization. (n.d.). Disability. World Health Organization. Retrieved April 6, 2023, from
16The Statistics Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. (2022). The Sustainable Development Goals Extended Report 2022. UN Stats. Retrieved January 31, 2023, from
17 United Nations. (n.d.). Inequality – Bridging the Divide. United Nations. Retrieved February 6, 2023, from
18The Statistics Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. (2022). The Sustainable Development Goals Extended Report 2022. UN Stats. Retrieved January 31, 2023, from
19The State of the Global Education Crisis. UNICEF. (2021, December 1). Retrieved February 10, 2023, from
20 Ibid.
21The Statistics Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. (2022). The Sustainable Development Goals Extended Report 2022. UN Stats. Retrieved January 31, 2023, from
22 Ibid.
24International Health Services. The Salvation Army International - International Health Services. (n.d.). Retrieved February 17, 2023, from
25Schools. The Salvation Army International - Schools. (n.d.). Retrieved February 17, 2023, from
26Russia-Ukraine War: The Salvation Army's response across Europe. The Salvation Army International. (n.d.). Retrieved February 28, 2023, from
27 Youthlink:Skills-4-Life. (n.d.). Retrieved March 31, 2023, from